Document Type : Original Article


Assistant Professor, Technology Development Research Institute (ACECR), PhD. in Tourism Management, Tehran, Iran


Tourist development today, coupled with advancements in information and communication technology, has rendered the traditional tourism value chain inefficient. Certain segments of the chain lack functionality or exhibit very weak functionality, failing to create added value. Among these segments are distribution channels (intermediaries), often comprising tour guides and travel agencies. Today's tourists, within the paradigm of creative tourism, seek more than mere leisure; they aim to discover the unknown and gain unique experiences through interaction with the destination and local people. In this study, conducted using qualitative and ethnographic methods, involving deep interviews and participatory observation by the researcher during a trip to Western Europe organized by the MANZAR Society in 2015, a creative and research-oriented journey was undertaken. The author endeavors to identify the role of intermediaries (tour leaders) in this journey as a theoretical framework within a dynamic and creative unified system. This framework suggests that the role of tour leaders has evolved from its traditional state to encompass a system involving activities before, during, and after the journey. The details of each activity were identified and elucidated in this study. It is worth noting that this framework was validated through a two-stage Delphi method involving experts.


Babaei Hemmati, R., & Mousavi, N. (2014). Creative tourism; Qom: Javanan Movaffagh publications, first edition.
Bastenegar, M. (2017). Conceptual model of creative tourism. Journal of Tourism and Development, 6(2), 81-108,
Berne-Manero, C., Gómez-Campillo, M., Marzo-Navarro, M., & Pedraja-Iglesias, M. (2018). Reviewing the online tourism value chain. Administrative Sciences, 8(3), 48,
Bloch, M., & Segev, A. (1997, January). The impact of electronic commerce on the travel industry an analysis methodology and case study. In Proceedings of the Thirtieth Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (Vol. 4, pp. 48-58). IEEE.
Cloke, P., & Perkins, H. (2005). Cetacean Performance and Tourism in Kaikoura New Zealand. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 23, 903-924,
Evans, G., & Foord, J. (2004). Rich mix Cities: from multicultural experience to cosmopolitan engagement, Journal of European Ethnology, 34(2), 71-84,
Hsu, C., Killion, G., Brown, G., Gross, M., & Huang, S. (2008). Tourism marketing: an Asia-Pacific perspective. CQUniversity.
Jarábková J., & Hamada, M. (2013). Creativity and Rural Tourism. Creative and Knowledge Society, 2(2), 5,
Johnston, R., & Clark, G. (2008). Service Operations Management: improving Service, Delivery. London, Prentice Hall
Kouchaki Motlagh, Z., Hasani, A., & Bastenegar, M. (2023). Tour Guides’ Creativity with an Emphasis on Cultural Intelligence. International Journal of Tourism, Culture and Spirituality, 6(1), 183-202,
Korez-Vide, R. (2013). Promoting Sustainability Of Tourism By Creative Tourism Development: How Far Is Slovenia? Innovative Issues and Approaches in Social Sciences, 6(1), 77-102,
Ludwig, L., & Starr, S. (2005). Library as place: results of a Delphi study. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 93(3), 315-327
Mansouri, S. (2015). tourism, a cognitive system. MANZAR, the Scientific Journal of landscape, 6(29), 28-33.
Moleiro, D., & Ribeiro, L. (2023). Creative tourism trends. In Routledge Handbook of Trends and Issues in Global Tourism Supply and Demand (pp. 163-175). Routledge.
O'reilly, K. (2012). Ethnographic methods. Routledge,
Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (2013). The experience economy: past, present and future. In Handbook on the experience economy (pp. 21-44). Edward Elgar Publishing.
Remoaldo, P., Serra, J., Marujo, N., Alves, J., Gonçalves, A., Cabeça, S., & Duxbury, N. (2020). Profiling the participants in creative tourism activities: Case studies from small and medium sized cities and rural areas from Continental Portugal. Tourism Management Perspectives, 36, 100746,
Richards, G., & Marques, L. (2012). Exploring Creative Tourism: Editors Introduction, Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 4(2), 1-11,
Richards, G., & Wilson, J. (2006), Developing Creativity in tourist experiences: A solution to the serial reproduction of culture? Tourism Management, 27(6), 1209–1223,
Richards, G., & Wilson, J. (2007). Tourism, Creativity and Development. London, New York: Routledge.
Singh, T.V. (2004). New Horizons in Tourism: Strange Experiences and Stranger Practices, Wallingford: CABI,
Tan, S. K., Tan, S. H., Luh, D. B., & Kung, S. F. (2016). Understanding tourist perspectives in creative tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(10), 981-987.,
Tasnim, Z., Shareef, M. A., Dwivedi, Y. K., Kumar, U., Kumar, V., Malik, F. T., & Raman, R. (2023). Tourism sustainability during COVID-19: developing value chain resilience. Operations Management Research, 16(1), 391-407.
Sutomo, Y. A. W., Sianipar, C. P., Basu, M., Onitsuka, K., & Hoshino, S. (2023). Tourism value chain: synthesizing value webs to support tourism development and planning. Tourism Review, 78(3), 726-746,
Gabunia, V., Zhvania, K., & Manshylina, T. )2011(. Supply Chain Management in Tourism Industry. Jonkoping International Business School.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2006). Towards Sustainable Strategies for Creative Tourism, Discussion Report of the Planning Meeting for 2008 International Conference on Creative Tourism Santa Fe, New Mexico, U.S.A. October 2006, 25-27.