Document Type : Original Article


Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism and Hospitality Management and Sustainable Tourism Development Department, Creative Economy Research Centre, West Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran. Iran


This study presents a significant contribution to the field of sustainable cultural tourism at world heritage sites, a crucial area in light of the World Tourism Organization's (WTO) projections for 2030. Employing a comprehensive and integrated approach, the research systematically synthesizes existing qualitative studies to address the question of sustainable development in this context. A rigorous meta-synthesis, following the methodology of Sandelowski and Barroso, was applied to 43 scientifically credible articles selected via the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). This selection process ensured the inclusion of high-quality research. The study's major intellectual contribution is the development of a new paradigmatic model for understanding sustainable cultural tourism at world heritage sites. This model was constructed using Grounded Theory Strategy and Maxqda2020 software, facilitating a structured analysis and interpretation of the data. The model organizes 99 primary codes into 20 main and secondary categories, providing a comprehensive framework that encapsulates the core phenomena of the field. Moreover, the study's findings are further validated through the use of Cohen's kappa Coefficient in SPSS, achieving a score of 0.714, which experts have confirmed. This statistical validation underscores the reliability of the research outcomes. Overall, this study not only synthesizes a wide range of existing qualitative research but also advances the field by offering a novel model and ensuring the reliability of its findings. These contributions are particularly relevant for policy makers and practitioners focused on the sustainable development of tourism, especially in the context of preserving cultural heritage at world heritage sites.


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