Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Tourism Management, Faculty of Management and Accounting, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Management, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Health, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 PhD Student of Sport Management, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran


Sports tourism is one of the types of tourism that has an increasing growth in the tourism industry. Its effects are evident in all dimensions and fields, and there is a need to explain the role of this type of tourism on promoting the culture and ethics of the host society. Therefore, the main goal of this research is to investigate the role of sports tourism on promoting the culture and ethics of the host society, which is done using a mixed method. In the first stage, semi-structured interviews were conducted using the qualitative method of the focus group of 15 experts who were selected by the purposive sampling method. In the second stage, 27 experts were identified using stratified sampling. Through the tool of the questionnaire, they expressed their opinions regarding the extracted components and indicators. According to the research findings, 32 key codes, 14 integrative codes and 4 overarching codes were obtained through coding by King and Harrocks method. In the quantitative stage, all the experts approved the extracted components and indicators. According to the results, sports tourism has a fundamental role in promoting the culture and ethics of the host society and this role is through components such as "developing and promoting positive and useful values in the host society; cultural and moral empowerment of tourists and the host society; promotion of participation and ethical cooperation; developing and promoting a culture of altruism and empathy" was approved. These cases can not only bring positive and extensive communication fields to the host society, but they are also able to be effective in creating social capital in the host society.


Alberti, F. G., & Giusti, J. D. (2012). Cultural heritage, tourism and regional competitiveness: The Motor Valley cluster. City, Culture and Society, 3(4), 261–273.
Ap, J. (1992). Residents’ Perceptions on Tourism Impacts. Annals of tourism Research, 19(4), 665–690.
Berger, M. (2021). At least 17 Injured in Knife Attack and Fire on Tokyo Subway Crowded with Halloween Revelers. 2021. Available online: (accessed on 6 April 2022).
Bull, C., & Lovell, J. (2007). The Impact of Hosting Major Sporting Events on Local Residents: An Analysis of the Views and Perceptions of Canterbury Residents in Relation to the Tour de France 2007. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(3-4), 229–248.
Cordina, R., Gannon, M. J., & Croall, R. (2019). Over and over: Local fans and spectator sport tourist engagement. The Service Industries Journal, 39(7-8), 590–608.
Fredline, E. (2005). Host and Guest Relations and Sport Tourism. Sport in Society, 8(2), 263–279.
Ganglmair-Wooliscroft, A., & Wooliscroft, B. (2016). Ethical holiday behavior, wellbeing and orientations to happiness. Appl. Res. Qual. Life, 11, 83–103.
Gibson, H. (2017). Sport Tourism and Theory and Other Developments: Some Reflections. J. Sport Tour., 21(2), 153–158.
Gibson, H. J. (1998). Sport Tourism: A Critical Analysis of Research. Sport Manag. Rev., 1(1), 45–76.
González-García, R. J., Mártínez-Rico, G., Bañuls-Lapuerta, F., & Calabuig, F. (2022). Residents’ perception of the impact of sports tourism on sustainable social development. Sustainability, 14(3), 1232.‏
Goodwin, H., & Francis, J. (2003). Ethical and responsible tourism: Consumer trends in the UK. J. Vacat. Mark., 9(3), 271–284.
Herbold, V., Thees, H., & Philipp, J. (2020). The host community and its role in sports tourism—Exploring an emerging research field. Sustainability, 12(24), 10488.‏
Herrero-Prieto, L. C., & Gomez-Vega, M. (2017). Cultural resources as a factor in cultural tourism attraction: Technical efficiency estimation of regional destinations in Spain. Tourism Economics, 23(2), 260–280.
Higham, J., & Hinch, T. (2018). Sport Tourism Development. Channel View Publications: Bristol, UK, 2018.
Hobson, K., & Essex, S. (2001). Sustainable Tourism: A View from Accommodation Businesses. Serv. Ind. J., 21(4), 133–146.
Hritz, N., & Ross, C. (2010). The Perceived Impacts of Sport Tourism: An Urban Host Community Perspective. J. Sport Manag., 24(2), 119–138.
Hemmonsbey, J., & Tichaawa, T. M. (2020). Brand Messages That Influence the Sport Tourism Experience: The Case of South Africa. J. Sport Tour., 24(3), 177–194.
Kapur, R. (2018). The significance of sports tourism. Access through the internet: https://www. researchgate. net/publication/328412942_The_Significance_of_Sports_ Tourism.‏
Kim, K., Uysal, M., & Sirgy, M. J. (2013). How Does Tourism in a Community Impact the Quality of Life of Community Residents? Tour. Manag., 36, 527–540.
King, N., & Horrocks, C. (2010) Interviews in qualitative research. Sage.
Koščak, M., Knežević, M., Binder, D., Pelaez-Verdet, A., Işik, C., Mićić, V., Borisavljević, K., & Šegota, T. (2023). Exploring the neglected voices of children in sustainable tourism development: A comparative study in six European tourist destinations. J. Sustain. Tour., 31(2), 561–580.
Látková, P., &Vogt, C. A. (2012). Residents’ Attitudes toward Existing and Future Tourism Development in Rural Communities. Journal of travel research, 51(1), 50–67.
Leung, Y. F., Spenceley, A., Hvenegaard, G., & Buckley, R. (Eds.) (2018). Tourism and Visitor Management in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Sustainability. IUCN: Gland, Switzerland, 1st ed. ISBN 978-2-8317-1898-9.
Lohana, S., Imran, M., Harouache, A., Sadia, A., & Ur Rehman, Z. (2023). Impact of environment, culture, and sports tourism on the economy: a mediation-moderation model. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 36(3), 2222306.‏
Malchrowicz-Mosko, E., & Munsters, W. (2018). Sport tourism: A growth market considered from a cultural perspective. Ido Movement for Culture. Journal of Martial Arts Anthropology, 18(4), 25-38.‏
MacClancy, J. (1996). Sport, Identity, and Ethnicity. Bloomsbury Publishing.
McCullough, B. P., & Trail, G. T. (2022). Assessing key performance indicators of corporate social responsibility initiatives in sport. European Sport Management Quarterly, 23(1), 82-103
Morfoulaki, M., Myrovali, G., Kotoula, K. M., Karagiorgos, T., & Alexandris, K. (2023). Sport Tourism as Driving Force for Destinations’ Sustainability. Sustainability, 15(3), 2445.‏
Novixys (2022). Argon Data Visualization. 2022. Available online: (accessed on 19 February 2022).
Nunkoo, R., & Ramkissoon, H. (2012). Power, Trust, Social Exchange and Community Support. Ann. Tour. Res., 39(2), 997–1023.
Oviedo-Garcia, M. A., Castellanos-Verdugo, M.. & Martin-Ruiz, D. (2008). Gaining Residents’ Support for Tourism and Planning. Int. J. Tour. Res., 10(2), 95–109.
Pigeassou, C. (2004). Contribution to the definition of sport tourism. J. Sport Tour., 9(2), 287–289.
Romão, J., Guerreiro, J., & Rodrigues, P. (2013). Regional tourism development: Culture, nature, life cycle and attractiveness. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(6), 517–534.
Rezai, N., & Alimoradian, L. (2020). The analysis of sport tourism role in Nahavand tourism development emphasizing on sport complexes (case study: Alimoradian Sport Complex). Urban tourism, 6(4), 145-156.‏
Spaaij, R. (2016). Terrorism and Security at the Olympics: Empirical Trends and Evolving Research Agendas. The International Journal of the History of Sport, 33(4), 451–468.
Standevan, J. (1998). Sport tourism: Joint marketing—A starting point for beneficialsynergies. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 4(1), 39–51.
Standeven, J., & Knop, P. D. (1998). Sport Tourism. Human Kinetics Publisher.
Taheri, B., Hosany, S., & Altinay, L. (2019). Consumer engagement in the tourism industry: New trends and implications for research. Serv. Ind. J., 39(7-8), 463–468.
Weed, M. (2005) Sports Tourism Theory and Method—Concepts, Issues and Epistemologies. European sport management quarterly, 5(3), 229–242.
Weed, M. (2009). Research Quality Considerations for Grounded Theory Research in Sport & Exercise Psychology. Psychology of sport and exercise, 10(2), 502–510.
Yang, J. J., Lo, H. W., Chao, C. S., Shen, C. C., & Yang, C. C. (2020). Establishing a sustainable sports tourism evaluation framework with a hybrid multi-criteria decision-making model to explore potential sports tourism attractions in Taiwan. Sustainability, 12(4), 1673.‏