1 Department of Abrahamic Religions, University of Religions and Denominations,Qom, Iran

2 PhD Candidate in Comparative Religious Studies, University of Religions and Denominations, Qom, Iran


The main motivations behind creative tourism, as a new form of tourism in the postmodern world, consist in achieving a new understanding of the “self” and the pursuit of “meaning,” “identity,” and “authenticity,” which have transformed the paradigm of tourism. With the development of the phenomenon of “spiritualism” in our time in which people turn away from the religion as a predetermined and organized phenomenon, in these new styles, the criterion is not to discover the religious other; it is to discover the self in the other. In this paper, we introduce the essential difference between creative tourism as an instance of postmodern tourism and cultural tourism, and we will examine the component of spirituality in creative tourism, and then elaborate the former as an opportunity for the development and understanding of religious beliefs and a ground for the creativity of the religious culture. Using historical-hermeneutical approach, this paper examines the concept of "spirituality" in lived travel experience of a creative tourists and argues that when discussing spirituality of tourism, one potential avenue is flourishment of religious creativity. A key objective of this paper therefore, is to provide an initial mapping of, and insights into this territory.


Al. Haj Mohammad. B.A. (2010). An Analysis of Push and Pull Travel Motivations of foreign Tourists of Jordon, Malaysia” Canadian Center of science and education.
Ambrož, M. & Ovsenik, R. (2011). “Tourist Origin and Spiritual Motives”, Management, 16 (2), 71-86.
Ashworth, G. & Goodall, B. (2013), Marketing Tourism Places, Abingdon: Routledge.
Binkhorst, E. (2007) “Creativity in Tourism Experiences: The Case of Sitges, Tourism”, in Tourism, Creativity and Development, Greg Richards and Julie Wilson (eds.), Abingdon: Routledge.
Boukas, N. (2008). Cultural Tourism, Young People and Destination Perception: A case study of Delphi, Greece, Thesis for Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management Studies, Greece: University of Exeter.
Braine, D. (1992). The Human Person: Animal and Spirit, Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
Carson, S. & Pennings, M. (2017). Performing Cultural Tourism, Communities, Tourists and Creative Practice, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Castells, M. (2001). Network the Rise of the Network Eociety, Trans. By H. Chavoshian, Vol 2, 4th Edition, Tehran: Tarh-e- no.
Cohen, E (1979). A phenomenology of Tourism, Research Article, 13 (2), pp. 179-201.
Cooper, C.& Hall, M. (2008). Contemporary Tourism: An International Approach, Great Britain: Elsevier.
Dann, (1977). A theoretical introduction to tourism, Annals of Tourism Research, 4 (4), 184-194.
Dilthey, Wilhelm. (1989), Introduction to the Human Sciences. Edited by R. A. Makkreel and F. Rodi. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
De Botton, A. (2006). The Art of Travel, Trans. by Goli Emami, Tehran: Niloofar Publication.
Decrop, A. (2006). Vacation Decision Making, UK  CABI Publishing.
Desbiolles, F. H. (2006). “More than an ‘industry’: The forgotten power of tourism as a social force”, Tourism Management, 27, 1192-1208.
Dyer, G. (2003). Yoga for People Who Can't Be Bothered to Do It, London: Abacus.
Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Giddens, A. (2002). How Globalization is Reshaping Our Lives, New York: Routledge.
Gide, A. (1964). The Fruits of the Earth, trans. by Parviz Daryoosh and Jalal al-e-Ahmad, Tehran: Asatir publication.
Grimshaw, M. (2008). Bibles and Baedekers (Tourism, Travel, Exile and God), UK and USA: equinox Publishing, First ed.
Garcia, N. C. (1995). Hybrid Cultures: Strategies for Entering and Leaving Modernity, United State: University of Minnesota Press.
Gadamer, H. G. (1977). Philosophical Hermeneutics. 1st paperback ed., Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hardy, A. (1979). The Spiritual Nature of Man, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Hassani, A, Bastenegar, M. (2016). “Components of Spirituality in Creative Tourism”, University of Science and culture Quarterly, 1 (1).
Heelas, P & L. Woodhead (2005). The Spiritual Revolution. Why Religion is Giving Way to Spirituality, Oxford: Blackwell.
Heelas, p. (2006). “Challenging Secularization Theory: The Growth of ‘New Age’ spiritualties of life”, The Hedgehog Review, Spring and Summer, 46-56.
Hegy, P. (2017). Lay Spirituality, USA: Wipf & Stock.
Katutja, T. (2010). Uluru-kata Tjuta National Park: Management Plan 2010-2020, National Park, Australia.
Nandy, A. (1998). “The Politics of Secularism and the Recovery of Religious Tolerance” in Rajeev Bhargava (ed.), Secularism and Its Critics, Delhi, Oxford University Press, 326-27.
Papeli yazdi, M. & Saghayi, M. (2010). Tourism (Essence and Conceptualities), Tehran: Samt Publications.
Pirmohammadzadeh, A. (2007). “The third generation of tourism: the generation of creative tourism”, Donyay-e Eqtesad Newspaper, NO. 3997. 95/12/11. News No. 1093152.
Rásky, B. (1998). “Cultural policy/policies in Europe”, In Ellmeier, A. and Österreichische Kulturdokumentation, Internationals Archiv für Kulturanalysen, Vienna, 5-85.
Rezvani, A.(2007). Geography and Tourism Industry, Tehran: Payam-e Noor Publications.
Ricoeur, Paul. (1976). Interpretation Theory: Discourse and the Surplus of Meaning. Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press.
Richards, G. Raymond, C. (2000). Creative Tourism, ATLAS News, No. 23. 16-20.
 Richards, G. & Wilson, J. (2008). From Cultural Tourism to Creative Tourism -Part 4: Changing Experiences. The Development of Creative Tourism. Arnhem: ATLAS. Available at:
Richards G & Marques L. (2012). “Exploring creative tourism: Editors introduction”, Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 4 (2), 2-11.
Sherratt, Yvonne. (2006). Continental Philosophy of Social Science: Hermeneutics, Genealogy, Critical Theory. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press.
Singh, S. (2008). “Spirituality and Tourism; an anthropologist's view”, Tourism Recreation Research, l34 (2), 143-155, online 2015.
Torrance, R. M. (1994). The Spiritual Quest: Transcendence in Myth, Religion and Science. Berkeley University of California Press.
Timothy D. J. & Oslen, D. H. (2013). Religious Tourism and Spiritual Journeys, Trans. by Muhammad Qolipour and Ehsan Majidi Fard, Tehran: Sociologists Publications, the First ed.
Uriely, N. (1997). Theories of Modern and Postmodern Tourism, Ben- Gurion University of Negev, Israel.
World Tourism Organization; UNWTO (2013),. International Conference: Spiritual Tourism for Sustainable Development, Brochure 9. Available at: sites/all/files/pdf/Vietnam_brochure 9.web-1.pdf.
 Weber, Max (1949), The Methodology of the Social Sciences, New York: Free Press.
Willson, G. B.; Alison, J.; McIntosh & Anne. L. Z. (2013), “Tourism and Spirituality: A Phenomenological Analysis”, Elsevier Ltd. Annals of Tourism Research, 42, 150-168