Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD. Candidate in Tourism Management, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

2 Professor, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran


This paper proposes a model for managing sustainable intercultural communication in the tourism industry of Iran and Oman, with a focus on the role of media. The study employed the grounded theory method and paradigm model, using in-depth literature review, background analysis, and interviews with relevant experts to answer research questions. The coding process involved open, central, and selective coding techniques. The model identifies the need for a combination of Bourdieu's capitals to achieve sustainable management of intercultural communication through the media, and emphasizes the importance of accepting globalization as a platform for positive changes in tourism. The model also highlights the need for institutionalizing the role of the media in sustainable intercultural communication, and developing the concept of tourism as hot and cool media. Other key factors include the development of regulations in proportion to contemporary world requirements, training of managers and citizens, and the need for stable intercultural relations. The model proposes action strategies such as extensively using media to develop regular intercultural ties, and the application of technology as a tool for sustainable development of tourism and social media. The proposed model explains the role of virtual media in improving sustainable intercultural communication management in the tourism industry, and could aid in optimal employment of virtual media in this field.


Bhin, Ju. (2020). Uploading Social Media as Indirect Promotion Strategies in Film Destination Tourism: Re-Enactment of Ada Apa dengan Cinta 2 in Sellie Coffee. Tourisma: Jurnal Pariwisata. 2. 10. 10.22146/gamajts.v2i1.56844.
Bobbitt, D. (2011). Teaching McLuhan: Understanding Understanding Media. Enculturation.
Bonnewitz, P. (2005). First lessons on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu.
Buchmann, A., Moore, K., & Fisher, D. (2010). Experiencing film tourism: Authenticity & fellowship. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(1), 229-248.
Burton, G. (2010). Media and society: Critical perspectives. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Canavan, B., & McCamley, C. (2021). Negotiating authenticity: Three modernities. Annals of Tourism Research, 88, 103185.
Chiao, Huei-Ming & Chen, Yu-Li & Huang, Wei-Hsin. (2018). Examining the usability of an online virtual tour-guiding platform for cultural tourism education. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education. 23. 29-38. 10.1016/j.jhlste.2018.05.002.
Dexter, L. A. (1970). Elite and Specialized Interviewing, Northwest University Press, Evanston, IL.
Domínguez-Azcue, J., Almeida-García, F., Pérez-Tapia, G., & Cestino-González, E. (2021). Films and Destinations—Towards a Film Destination: A Review. Information, 12(1), 39.
Du, Xin & Liechty, Toni & Santos, Carla & Park, Jeongeun. (2020). ‘I want to record and share my wonderful journey’: Chinese Millennials’ production and sharing of short-form travel videos on TikTok or Douyin. Current Issues in Tourism. 1-13. 10.1080/13683500.2020.1810212.
Effiong, Charles. (2018). Globalization, Social Media and Imperatives in the Promotion of Nigerian Cultural Values. Journal of New Media and Mass Communication. 5. 14-22. 10.18488/journal.91.2018.51.14.22.
Eristi, B., & Erdem, C. (2017). Development of a media literacy skills scale. Contemporary Educational Technology, 8(3), 249-267.
Filieri, R., Alguezaui, S., & McLeay, F. (2015). Why do travelers trust TripAdvisor? Antecedents of trust towards consumer-generated media and its influence on recommendation adoption and word of mouth. Tourism management, 51, 174-185.
Gao, B., & Huang, L. (2019). Understanding interactive user behavior in smart media content service: An integration of TAM and smart service belief factors. Heliyon, 5(12), e02983.
Grenfell, M. (2009). Applying Bourdieu's field theory: The case of social capital and education. Education, Knowledge & Economy, 3(1), 17-34.
Gurung, Deep & Goswami, Chandan. (2017). Role of Use Generated Content in Destination Image Formation. 10. 6-15.
Hobbs, R. & Moore D. C. (2013). Discovering media literacy: teaching digital media and popular culture in elementary schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
Huda, Miftachul, Mazlina C. Mustafa, and Ahmad K. Mohamed 2021. "Understanding of Multicultural Sustainability through Mutual Acceptance: Voices from Intercultural Teachers’ Previous Early Education" Sustainability 13, no. 10: 5377.
Hudson, S., Wang, Y., & Gil, S. M. (2011). The influence of a film on destination image and the desire to travel: a cross‐cultural comparison. International journal of tourism research, 13(2), 177-190.
Idolor, E. (2007). Strategizing Globalisation for the Advancement of African Music Identity. Journal of Social Sciences, 14(2), 107-108.
Ifigeneia ,Mylona , Dimitrios , Amanatidis, (2018), “Globalization, Social Media and Public Relations: A Necessary Relationship for the Future?” in The Economies of the Balkan and the Eastern European Countries in the changing World, KnE Social Sciences, pages 309–325. DOI 10.18502/kss. v3i10.3546.
Johnson, Patricia. (2013). Cultural literacy, cosmopolitanism and tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research. 44. 10.1016/j.annals.2013.10.006.
Kang, & Chen, Wayne. (2019). Art in the Age of Social Media: Interaction Behavior Analysis of Instagram Art Accounts. Informatics. 6. 52. 10.3390/informatics6040052.
Kardong-Edgren, S., Farra, S. L., Alinier, G., & Young, H. M. (2019). A Call to Unify Definitions of Virtual Reality. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 31, 28-34.
Kim, S., Kim, S., & Heo, C. (2015). Assessment of TV drama/film production towns as a rural tourism growth engine. Asia pacific journal of tourism research, 20(7), 730-760.
Kim, Seongseop & Kim, Sangkyun & King, Brian. (2018). Nostalgia film tourism and its potential for destination development. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. 36. 71-87. 10.1080/10548408.2018.1527272.
Lam, Jason M.S, Ismail, Hishamuddin, Lee, Sean. (2020). From desktop to destination: User-generated content platforms, co-created online experiences, destination image and satisfaction. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 18.
Li, C. H., & Liu, C. C. (2020). The effects of empathy and persuasion of storytelling via tourism micro-movies on travel willingness. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 25(4), 382-392.
Llić, Ivana & Nikolić, Anđelija. (2018). Implications of modern technology development for the tourism sector of the Republic of Serbia. Ekonomika. 64. 37-52. 10.5937/ekonomika1801037I.
Loureiro, S. M. C., Guerreiro, J., Eloy, S., Langaro, D., & Panchapakesan, P. (2018) Understanding the use of Virtual Reality in Marketing: A text mining- based review. Journal of Business Research. doi:
Macionis, N., & Sparks, B. (2009). Film-induced tourism: An incidental experience. Tourism Review International, 13(2), 93-101.
Manghisi, V. M., Uva, A. E., Fiorentino, M., Gattullo, M., Boccaccio, A., & Monno, G. (2018). Enhancing user engagement through the user centric design of a mid-air gesture-based  interface  for the navigation of virtual-tours in cultural heritage expositions. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 32, 186-197.
McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding media: The extensions of man. MIT press.
Mohammad, J., Quoquab, F., Thurasamy, R., & Alolayyan, M. N. (2020). The effect of user-generated content quality on brand engagement: The mediating role of functional and emotional values. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 21(1), 39-55.
O'Connor, N. (2011). How can the film‐induced tourism phenomenon be sustainably managed?. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes.
O'Connor, Noelle & Flanagan, Sheila & Gilbert, David. (2010). The use of film in re-imaging a tourism destination: A case study of Yorkshire, UK. Journal of Vacation Marketing.
Ott, Jared M., Tan ,Naomi Q. P. & Slater ,Michael D. (2021) Eudaimonic Media in Lived Experience: Retrospective Responses to Eudaimonic vs. Non-Eudaimonic Films, Mass Communication and Society, DOI: 10.1080/15205436.2021.1912774.
Pan, S., & Ryan, C. (2013). Film-induced heritage site conservation: The case of Echoes of the Rainbow. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 37(1), 125-150.
Pine, B. J. & Gilmore, J. H. (1999), The experience economy. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Potter, W. J. (2010). The state of media literacy. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, 54(4), 675-696.
Qurashi, Jahanzeeb & Sharpley, Richard A. (2018) "The Impact of SMART Media Technologies (SMT) on the Spiritual Experience of Hajj Pilgrims," International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage: Vol. 6: Iss. 3, Article 6. Available at:
Reijnders, S. (2016). Places of the imagination: Media, tourism, culture. Routledge.
Richards, Greg (2011), Creativity and Tourism; The State of the Art, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 1225–1253.
Sahin, A. (2014). Elestirel medya okuryazarligi [Critical media literacy]. Ankara: Ani.
Salehuddin, A. B. M., & Baharuddin, M. N. (2018, November). Interactive Art as a Medium of Speech. In 3rd International Conference on Creative Media, Design and Technology (REKA 2018) (pp. 70-74). Atlantis Press.
Schmidt, H. C. (2013). Media literacy education from kindergarten to college: A comparison of how media literacy is addressed across the educational system. Journal of Media Literacy Education, 5(1), 295-309.
Schreurs, Lara & Vandenbosch, Laura (2020): Introducing the Social Media Literacy (SMILE) model with the case of the positivity bias on social media, Journal of Children and Media,
Seidman, S. (2016). Contested knowledge: Social theory today. John Wiley & Sons.
Seifan, M., Dada, D., & Berenjian, A. (2019). The effect of virtual field trip as an introductory tool for an engineering real field trip. Education for Chemical Engineers, 27, 6-11. doi:
Shirafken Lemso, M., Mohammad zadeh, P., Beboodi, D. (2018). The application of foundational data theory method in identifying the subjective pattern of housing demand in Tabriz city: a cognitive science approach. Journal of Urban Economy. 4(3). 1-24 (IN PERSIAN).
Shliakhovchuk, Elena (2021) After cultural literacy: new models of intercultural competency for life and work in a VUCA world, Educational Review.
Sigala, Marianna. (2018). Market Formation in the Sharing Economy: Findings and Implications from the Sub-economies of Airbnb. 10.1007/978-3-319-61967-5_9.
Silver, A. (2009). A European approach to media literacy: moving toward an inclusive knowledge society. In D. Frau-Meigs & J. Torrent (Eds.), Mapping media education policies in the world: Visions, programmes and challenges (pp. 11-13). New York: UN Alliance of Civilizations.
Silverblatt, A., Smith, A., Miller, D., Smith, J. & Brown, N. (2014). Media literacy: Keys to interpreting media messages. Santa Barbara: Praeger.
Stankov, Ugljesa & Gretzel, Ulrike. (2020). Tourism 4.0 technologies and tourist experiences: a human-centered design perspective. Information Technology & Tourism. 22. 10.1007/s40558-020-00186-y.
Stezhko, Nadiia & Oliinyk, Yaroslav & Polishchuk, Larysa & Tyshchuk, Inna & Parfinenko, Anatoliy & Markhonos, Svitlana, (2020). International Tourism in the System of Modern Globalization Processes .International Journal of Management (IJM), 11 (3), 2020, pp. 97–106., Available at SSRN:
Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques.Sage Publications, Inc.
Tamplin, N. C., McLean, S. A., & Paxton, S. J. (2018). Social media literacy protects against the negative impact of exposure to appearance ideal social media images in young adult women but not men. Body Image, 26, 29-37.
Tan, S. K., Kung, S. F., & Luh, D. B. (2013). A model of ‘creative experience’in creative tourism. Annals of tourism research, 41, 153-174.
Tazim, Jamal; Mike, Robinson. 2014, "Tourism Studies", translators (Mohammad Hossein Imani Khoshkho; Zahra Nadalipour; Afsana Pourjam Alavijeh). Tehran: Academic Jihad Publishing Organization, first edition, (IN PERSIAN).
UNESCO (2006), Towards sustainable strategies for creative tourism: Discussion report of the planning meeting for 2008 international conference on creative tourism, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Williams, kevin, 2003,”understanding Media Theory”: London, Arnold.
Yen, C. H., & Croy, W. G. (2016). Film tourism: Celebrity involvement, celebrity worship and destination image. Current Issues in Tourism, 19(10), 1027-1044.
Yigit, Mehmet Fatih & Tarman, Bulent. (2013). The Impact of Social Media on Globalization, Democratization and Participative Citizenship. Journal of Social Science Education. 12. 75-80. 10.4119/UNIBI/jsse-v12-i1-84.
Zhu, Y., Kwon, M., & Zhao, Y. (2022). A Study on Visual Perception Differences between Hot Media and Cool Media Focusing on Image News and Text News Reading. Sch J Eng Tech, 9, 235-244.
Embassy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Muscat, Oman ,2021. Available from: [13 August 2021].
Donyay Eghtesad, 2020, Deepening Relations between Iran and Oman with Tourism. Available from: