Document Type : Original Article


1 PhD. Student, Faculty of Tourism, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Tourism, University of Science and Culture, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Technology Development Research Institute (ACECR), PhD. in Tourism Management, Tehran, Iran


Tour guides are considered as one of the key players within the tourism supply chain, serving as direct interfaces with visitors and acting as cultural mediators between diverse cultures. They exert a significant influence on tourists' intentions for repeat visits. Nowadays, tourists are not merely seeking basic information from guides, as they can easily access such information online. Instead, they are in search of creative, authentic, interactive experiences with participatory learning, demanding the presence of creativity in tour guides. Consequently, guides need to demonstrate new forms of creativity in their performance. Creativity is a pivotal aspect for achieving professional success in the realm of tour guiding. The depth of their professional knowledge and their creative abilities significantly impact the quality of tours and the portrayal of destinations. As cultural intelligence is one of the critical dimensions of creativity, this research aims to explore the relationship between cultural intelligence and the creativity of tour guides. Using a library review method, it examines the role of cultural intelligence, its dimensions, and indicators. Ultimately, it presents a conceptual framework for fostering the creativity of tour guides, grounded in the principles of cultural intelligence.


Afsharian, M. J., Esmaeili, M. R., & Nikaeen, Z. (2020). Impact of Organizational and Cultural Intelligence on Ministry of Sports and Youth Personnel Creativity: The Mediating Role of Communication Skills. Strategic Studies on Youth and Sports, 19(49), 129-144 (In Persian)
Alexandra, V. (2023). Optimizing cultural intelligence development by considering different types of change. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 34(12), 2404-2428.
Altinay, L., Madanoglu, G. K., Kromidha, E., Nurmagambetova, A., & Madanoglu, M. (2021). Mental aspects of cultural intelligence and self-creativity of nascent entrepreneurs: The mediating role of emotionality. Journal of business research, 131, 793-802.
Andresen, M., & Bergdolt, F. (2017). A systematic literature review on the definitions of global mindset and cultural intelligence–merging two different research streams. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(1), 170-195.
Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Koh, C. (2006). Personality correlates of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123.
Asadi Zarch, M. R., & Najjarzadeh, M. (2021). Study relation of cultural intelligence with manager performance of Tour and Travel Agencies. International journal of Tourism, Culture & Spirituality, 5(1), 197-219.
Bastenegar, M. (2017). Conceptual model of creative tourism. Tourism and Management, 6(2), 81-108.
Benedek, M., Jauk, E., Sommer, M., Arendasy, M., & Neubauer, A. C. (2014). Intelligence, creativity, and cognitive control: The common and differential involvement of executive functions in intelligence and creativity. Intelligence, 46, 73-83.
Bharwani, S., & Jauhari, V. (2017). An exploratory study of competencies required to cocreate memorable customer experiences in the hospitality industry. In Hospitality marketing and consumer behavior (pp. 159-185). Apple Academic Press.
Bobanovic, M. K., & Grzinic, J. (2019). Teaching tourism students with cultural intelligence. UTMS Journal of Economics, 10(1), 85-95.
Boswijk, A., Thijssen, T., & Peelen, E. (2007). The experience economy: A new perspective. Pearson Education.
Brislin, R., Worthley, R., & Macnab, B. (2006). Cultural intelligence: Understanding behaviors that serve people’s goals. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 40-55.
Bryon, J. (2012). Tour guides as storytellers–from selling to sharing. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 12(1), 27-43.
Butt, H. D., Laeeq, K., & Aijaz, U. (2023). Impact of Cultural Intelligence on Employee Productivity in Mega Projects. Human Nature Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), 142-157.
Chedru, M., & Ostapchuk, M. (2023). The effect of study abroad and personality on cultural intelligence: A deeper understanding using the expanded model of cultural intelligence. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 92, 101737.
Chen, M. H., Chang, Y. C., & Hung, S. C. (2008). Social capital and creativity in R&D project teams. R&d Management, 38(1), 21-34.
center, c. i. (2005). Retrieved from
Daneshvar, H., Esfahani, A. F. P., & Yazdanmehr, E. (2020). The Role of Interpreters’ Cultural Intelligence in Cross-cultural Encounters. International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation, 3(8), 54-63.
Dul, J., Ceylan, C., & Jaspers, F. (2011). Knowledge workers' creativity and the role of the physical work environment. Human resource management, 50(6), 715-734.
Earley, P. C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures.
Earley, P. C., & Mosakowski, E. (2004). Toward culture intelligence: turning cultural differences into a workplace advantage. Academy of Management Perspectives, 18(3), 151-157.
Earley, P. C., & Peterson, R. S. (2004). The elusive cultural chameleon: Cultural intelligence as a new approach to intercultural training for the global manager. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3(1), 100-115.
Elenkov, D. S., & Manev, I. M. (2009). Senior expatriate leadership's effects on innovation and the role of cultural intelligence. Journal of World Business, 44(4), 357-369.
Fayazi, F., & Jannesari  Ahmadi, H. (2006). cultural  intelligence;  the  need  of  managers in the century of diversity. Information Technology & People, 22(3), 223-241.
Gregory, R., Prifling, M., & Beck, R. (2009). The role of cultural intelligence for the emergence of negotiated culture in IT offshore outsourcing projects. Information Technology & People, 22(3), 223-241.
Hadinejad, a. (2014). The relationship between cultural intelligence and intercultural compatibility in the management of sightseeing tours Master's thesis,Allameh Tabatabai University. (in Persian)
Hu, N., Wu, J., & Gu, J. (2019). Cultural intelligence and employees’ creative performance: The moderating role of team conflict in interorganizational teams. Journal of Management & Organization, 25(1), 96-116.
Hurombo, B. (2016). Assessing key tour guide competences to co-create memorable tourism experiences North-West University (South Africa), Potchefstroom Campus].
Johnson, S. A., Lin, J.-C., & Song, K. R. (2006). Dividend policy, signaling, and discounts on closed-end funds. Journal of Financial Economics, 81(3), 539-562.
Jolodarzadeh, Y., & soleiman. (2022). Ability to predict the job performance of employees of the General Directorate of Cultural Heritage, Tourism and Handicrafts based on cultural intelligence components, based on gender control. Tourism planning and development, 11(40), 211-231. (In Persian). International Journal of Educational Research, 33(7):751-776
Karroubi, M., Hadinejad, A., & Taghavian Noghan, S. A. (2016). Studying the Relationship between Cultural Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence among Outgoing Tour Leaders in Tehran. Journal of Tourism Planning and Development4(15), 24-41.
Karoubi (b), M., Amiri, Z., & Mahmoodzadeh, S. M. (2016). The Impact of Cultural Intelligence on Job Performance (Case Study: Incoming Tour Leaders in Tehran). Journal of Tourism Planning and Development, 5(18), 119-136(In Persian)
Karroubi, M., Hadinejad, A., & Mahmoudzadeh, S. (2014). A study on relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment in tour management. Management Science Letters, 4(6), 1233-1244. (In Persian)
Khazayi, Z. (2013). Investigating the impact of cultural intelligence, emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence on the job performance of hospitality managers (case study: Mashhad) Master's thesis, Semnan University. (in Persian)
Lambert Snodgrass, L., Ghahremani, M., & Hass, M. (2023). Live-Learn-Work: Experiential Learning and Cultural Intelligence in the Internship Abroad. Journal of Global Education and Research, 7(1), 50-63.
Ljubica, J., & Dulcic, Z. (2012). The role of cultural intelligence (Cq) In the strategy formulation process–application to the hotel industry. Annals and Proceedings of DAAAM International, 23(1), 115-120.
Mkono, M. (2010). An analysis of Zimbabwean hotel managers' perspectives on workforce diversity. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 10(4), 301-310.
Nghi, N. Q., & Thanh, K. (2020). Creativity of Tour Guides in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 2(21).
Pearce, P. L. (1984). Tourist-guide interaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 11(1), 129-146.
Perry-Smith, J. E., & Shalley, C. E. (2003). The social side of creativity: A static and dynamic social network perspective. Academy of management review, 28(1), 89-106.
Rátz, T. (2017). ‘Be global, go local’–innovation and creativity in the development of alternative guiding services in Budapest. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 15(5), 476-489.
Remoaldo, P., Serra, J., Marujo, N., Alves, J., Gonçalves, A., Cabeça, S., & Duxbury, N. (2020). Profiling the participants in creative tourism activities: Case studies from small and medium sized cities and rural areas from Continental Portugal. Tourism Management Perspectives, 36, 100746.
Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond general intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross‐border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 825-840.
Sehat, S., Vahidi Nia, E., N., & Deilmi Azoddi, A. (2015). Investigating the relationship between cultural intelligence and creativity (case study: international hotels in Tehran) Human resource studies, 1 (1), 90-104. (In Persian)
Scharoun, L., & Montana-Hoyos, C. A. (2017). Overseas study tours and cultural intelligence: Can travel coupled with cross-cultural design thinking workshops improve cultural intelligence in Arts and Design students? Australasian Journal of Popular Culture, 6(1), 135-148.
Scherle, N., & Nonnenmann, A. (2008). Swimming in cultural flows: Conceptualising tour guides as intercultural mediators and cosmopolitans. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 6(2), 120-137.
Siripipatthanakul, S. (2023). A Review of Cultural Intelligence for Today’s Globalised World. World Journal of English and Linguistic Studies, 1(1), 1-8.
Solomon, A., & Steyn, R. (2017). Exploring cultural intelligence truths: A systematic review. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), 1-11.
Thomas, D. C., Inkson, K.  (2008). Cultural intelligence: People skills for global business. ReadHowYouWant. m.
Thomas, D. C., & Inkson, K. (2005). People skills for a global workplace. Consulting to management, 16(1), 5-9.
Tsai, C.-Y., Wang, M.-T., & Tseng, H.-T. (2016). The impact of tour guides’ physical attractiveness, sense of humor, and seniority on guide attention and efficiency. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33(6), 824-836.
Tuleja, E. A. (2014). Developing cultural intelligence for global leadership through mindfulness. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 25(1), 5-24.
Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2005). Getting more than you expect: Global leader initiative to span structural holes and reputational effectiveness. In Advances in global leadership (pp. 101-122). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Ng, K. Y., Rockstuhl, T., Tan, M. L., & Koh, C. (2012). Sub‐dimensions of the four factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence. Social and personality psychology compass, 6(4), 295-313.
Wood, E. D., & St. Peters, H. Y. (2014). Short-term cross-cultural study tours: Impact on cultural intelligence. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(4), 558-570.
Yang, H., Cheung, C., & Li, W. (2022). Intercultural communication competency practices in the hotel industry. Journal of China Tourism Research, 18(1), 162-184.
Yari, N., Lankut, E., Alon, I., & Richter, N. F. (2020). Cultural intelligence, global mindset, and cross-cultural competencies: A systematic review using bibliometric methods. European Journal of International Management, 14(2), 210-250.
Yunlu, D. G., Clapp-Smith, R., & Shaffer, M. (2017). Understanding the role of cultural intelligence in individual creativity. Creativity Research Journal, 29(3), 236-243.
Zanazzi, S. (2017). Cultural Intelligence and Creativity: The Experience of Trainees Abroad. International Research in Higher Education, 2(2), 33-44.
Zhou, J., & George, J. M. (2001). When job dissatisfaction leads to creativity: Encouraging the expression of voice. Academy of Management journal, 44(4), 682-696. ‏